India is the second richest country in bamboo genetic resources after China. These two countries together have more than half the total bamboo resources globally. The annual production of bamboo in India is about 4.6 million tonnes; about 1.9 million tonnes is used by the pulp industries. The annual yield of bamboo per hectare varies between 0.2 and 0.4 tonnes with an average of 0.33 tonnes per hectare, depending upon the intensity of stocking and biotic interferences. The economic impact of the agroforestry-based bamboo system may influence general economic development considerably. On average, 250 air-dried culms weigh one tonne and the price per tonne of dry bamboo is Rs 1000 (auction rate)
Bamboos are aptly called the poor man’s timber and are found in great abundance. Their strength, straightness and lightness combined with extraordinary hardness, range in sizes, abundance, easy propagation and the short period in which they attain maturity make them suitable for a variety of purposes. The diversity of this fascinating plant has to be conserved, not just for financial reasons, but also more importantly in the revitalization of traditional sciences and technologies.
Bambusa arundinacea and Dendrocalamus strictus are common varieties in Andhra Pradesh or Telangana regions.
Eucalyptus / Jamail / Nilgiri Plantation
Eucalyptus is among the fastest growing hardwood trees in the world, is grown in any type of soil and climates .(The clonal technology of eucalyptus which involves selection of superior eucalyptus trees of desirable qualities, felling them, collecting the optimum sized vegetative shoots, and growing them under controlled atmosphere of humidity and temperature requires high degree of methodical working, perseverance and scientific acumen). The rain-fed plantation takes 3.5 to 4 years to reach harvesting stage and yields about 35 to 65 tones per Acra.1 ton of pulp costs Rs.4,500 to 8,000 (ITC giving the support price Rs. 4500 in Andhra Pradesh . Other states paper mills giving more than ITC pricing Ex: TNPL, JK Paper mills ). This plants will give you 3 harvests within 10 to years with onetime planting of eucalyptus sapling no need to plant every 4 years . The plant gives a Good revenue per acre ( well irrigated cultivation will give more money and yield than rain-fed irrigation ). The second and third phase of yielding will take place in the next 4 years. After three harvestings, the plant would lose its vitality and will not be fit for further harvesting. If you plant the eucalyptus no need to bother about another things with the ten years and no need to bother about labor. The department justified the plantations saying there was no other alternative tree species that could be raised on degraded forests, ensured good income to the community and in short duration. Eucalyptus is one of the fastest growing trees and is an excellent timber for paper and pulp, particleboard and hardboard industries. It is also an excellent source of fuel wood and charcoal. Eucalyptus wood is also used for light and heavy construction, railway sleepers, bridges, piles, poles and mining timber. Indian Standards are available for use of E.tereticornis timber, after treatment, for door frames, window shutters, furniture, cabinet, tool handles, packing cases and crates. Leaf extracts of the species have pesticide properties and can be promoted as a bio pesticide. he leaves of the species are rich in essential oils, that have many medicinal uses. Eucalyptus globules can be raised commercially for Eucalyptus oil. E.tereticornis is a major source of pollen in apiculture and produces a medium amber honey of distinctive flavor. The wood and bark of the tree have a tannin content of 6-12% and 3-15% respectively, though not used as a commercial source of tannin. Eucalyptus is a large ornamental tree suitable for parks and avenue plantations. The tree may be used as an agro-forestry species. Eucalyptus in combination with pineapple have given excellent results in China. The tree species can be effectively used for regeneration of denuded lands and prevention of soil erosions in drought -affected areas.
Melia Dubia (Malaivembu / Hebbevu / Malabarneem / Kondavepa)
Melia Dubia is one of the rapid increasing tree and provide excellent income. It can be used in match or biomass or plywood industries. One of the main problem in today’s agricultural is reducing income day by day. The earth values are increased and income from agriculture is reduced due to increased cost for labors, increase in charge of crop growing and increase in transport cost. For the reason that farmers are selling land and looking for other business. Hence we need to think of good income from agriculture through reducing labors and increasing yield. In today’s picture, the mediator are earning the good income from agriculture products, and the farmer who produces receiving less from what he produced. Since the many short term crops require more labors, transportation and inventory cost, the ultimate gain for the farmers are very less. To make good revenues as per unit, we need to cultivate medium to long term crops keeping the cost to minimum and also good revenue in upcoming.
It is one of the fast growing plant species which is having multiple uses in domestic and industrial needs. One can grow these plants for short term as biomass for Charcoal making, match sticks, pulpwood, pencil making and for making biomass Briquette. The wood is also very useful in biomass gasification power units as fuel (firewood).
Medium term cultivation gives moderate income and long term cultivation for 10-12 years will fetch handsome income for the cultivators. This long duration crop will fetch wood value and each tree may attain 7Cu.Ft to 15Cu.Ft wood. i.e. average 10Cu.Ft. wood per tree with average girth of 60cm to 125cm. Such wood is having huge requirement in Plywood industries and packing box making industries.
Tissue Cultured Teak / Sagwan (Tectona Grandis)
Teak (Tectona grandis) is one of the most valued timbers of the world. Its timber qualities include attractiveness in color and grain, durability, lightness, strength and ease of working and carving, resistance to termite, fungus and weathering.
As Tissue cultured plants raised from the superior mother plant, the characteristics are as follows: Genetically uniform plants, Disease free planting material, Uniform growth and development and Harvesting can be done at the same time.
Soil : All Types of soil without water logging is suitable for cultivating Teak
Climate: The optimum range of temperature is 28 degree C to 30 degree C. Dry weather after monsoon.
Variety : LocalSeason of Planting: Preferable in July to September. However, can be planted anytime except very high and low temperatures.
Spacing : The planting distance for monoculture system is 3m x 3m, while for inter cropping, it is 3m x 6m
Harvesting: Tissue cultured raised plants which are able to be harvested quicker (15 to 20 years) with the acceptable wood quality ate national and international markets.
Yield: At the best we may expect a tree to produce a maximum of 238 m3 of timber from 350 trees in 15 years under best conditions of intensive management.